Raging Against the Machine: Political Opposition Under Authoritarianism in Egypt by Holger Albrecht
Raging Against the Machine explains why political opposition emerges and persists over a protracted period of time in an autocracy, thirty years under Hosni Mubarak, without either changing the fundamental rules of the political game or disappearing as a consequence of the regime's containment strategies. Albrecht uncovers a rich and dynamic world of opposition politics in Egypt. Apart from Islamist movements--by far the strongest opposition groups--we find other forms of organizations in Egypt, such as political parties, human rights groups, smaller protest movements, organization representing workers' interests, and informal pressure groups. They have all employed different ideological and programmatic perspectives, such as Islamism, nationalism, liberalism, and socialism. Albrecht examines political change in Mubarak's Egypt beyond revolutionary politics and provides insights into this authoritarian regime characterized by an idiosyncratic relationship between ruler and opposition.