Beirut 1958: How America's Wars in the Middle East Began by Bruce Riedel
What wasn't learned from a U.S. intervention that succeeded
In July 1958, U.S. Marines stormed the beach in Beirut, Lebanon, ready for combat. They were greeted by vendors and sunbathers. Fortunately, the rest of their mission--helping to end Lebanon's first civil war--went nearly as smoothly and successfully, thanks in large part to the skillful work of American diplomats who helped arrange a compromise solution. Future American interventions in the region would not work out quite as well.
Bruce Riedel's new book tells the now-forgotten story (forgotten, that is, in the United States) of the first U.S. combat operation in the Middle East. President Eisenhower sent the Marines in the wake of a bloody coup in Iraq, a seismic event that altered politics not only of that country but eventually of the entire region. Eisenhower feared that the coup, along with other conspiracies and events that seemed mysterious back in Washington, threatened American interests in the Middle East. His action, and those of others, were driven in large part by a cast of fascinating characters whose espionage and covert actions could be grist for a movie.
Although Eisenhower's intervention in Lebanon was unique, certainly in its relatively benign outcome, it does hold important lessons for today's policymakers as they seek to deal with the always unexpected challenges in the Middle East. Veteran analyst Bruce Reidel describes the scene as it emerged six decades ago, and he suggests that some of the lessons learned then are still valid today. A key lesson? Not to rush to judgment when surprised by the unexpected. And don't assume the worst.
Bruce Riedel is the Director of the Intelligence Project at the Brookings Institution and a Senior Fellow in the Center for Middle East Studies. He is the author of Kings and Presidents: Saudi Arabia and the United States since FDR and five other books. Prior to coming to Brookings, he served thirty years in the Central Intelligence Agency with postings in the Middle East and Europe, and in the White House and Pentagon.